1965 Baltic Cruise

 

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Dunera at Tilbury in the early 1960’s

We sailed without any passengers from Tilbury (London) to Edinburgh in the Firth of Forth in Scotland, for a cruise of Scottish students to the Baltic.

Our first port of call was Kristiansand on the southern tip of Norway. I did miss the heat of the Mediterranean, even in May the outside temperature at night was cold. We arrived at 8.00 am and held a regatta for the students – think pirates again, but this time without the nuns.
At noon we sailed for Copenhagen, arriving at 8.00 am the following day.

I loved our visit to Copenhagen. As a cadet I scrounged a seat on the tour bus (free of course), so had to stay with the  group to make sure I returned to the Dunera on time.

TivoliFound the above which is a 1965 advertising poster for the Tivoli Gardens.

The Tivoli Gardens was a ‘must’, over twenty acres of not just gardens, but also a giant fun fair and amusement park. It was opened in 1843 and is still going strong. I would have liked to stay longer, but the tour moved on to the Little Mermaid.

 

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1965

I was a little disappointed with the position of the mermaid, because I thought she would be in a park with great views across the water. It was difficult to take pictures of the statue without having the backdrop of cranes, warehouses and shipping industry. At the time I had a Kodak Brownie 127, which was a point and click, and you had to get the film developed, which cost money, so you were very careful as to what you photographed.
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Things have changed, today (2019). She keeps losing her head, and when it is replaced it is not the same.

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In 2014 (taken from the internet) she was still facing out to sea.

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Instead of facing out to sea she is now facing the tourists, I took the above in 2018.
The power of tourism I suppose.

The statue is very close to the shore and as long you want a close-up you can zoom in & miss out the background of industry.

I remember a church that we visited, Church of Holman,

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but the memory of the sailing ships hanging from the church’s ceiling has stayed with me over the years.

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The picture is from the internet – but my memory has it that there were more than one hanging from the ceiling . . .but. . . . it was interesting to read of the link between the church and the sea.
The main part of a church is a nave, from the Latin navis, which means ship, and this has passed down to us as navy or naval. A Christian life is a journey with our Pilot (Jesus) helping us to navigate through life. The Danes have linked the sea and ships to Christ in a much stronger way than many other Christian countries and the hanging of ships in various churches brings this home.

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The world council of churches uses a boat afloat on the sea of the world with the mast in the form of a cross as their symbol.

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Prince Frederik & Princess Mary of Denmark latest twins were Christened in this church.

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The white line across the picture is actually a row of  white umbrellas along the fishing wharf.
The colourful Copenhagen buildings, which were ( & still are I think) restaurants and bars, and in 1965 some still had cannon balls embedded in the walls. They had been fired from Nelson’s ships during the  battle of Copenhagen in 1801 in the Napoleonic war. There was a second battle of Copenhagen in 1807, but Nelson was killed in 1805  at Trafalgar.

Our next stop was Gdansk in Poland. In the late 18th century Poland was divided by the great powers, and in 1793 Prussia took Gdansk, and from 1871 became part of Germany, when Germany became a nation state.
After WW1 Poland was independent again it was decided that Gdansk should become a semi-independent city, which became known as Danzig. When Germany invaded, 1st September, 1939, they annexed Danzig.
In 1945 the city was captured by the Russians, which was when it became part of Poland.

Under the communist system Gdansk (as it was now known) became very important for their ship building industry.

When I arrived only twenty years after the end of WW2 in 1965, I found Gdansk to be a very dour place, giving off an impression of grey dull architecture and the feeling of a black and white photograph with little, if any, colour; so different from Copenhagen.
The Second World War was still a living memory for the Polish people, followed by Russian style communism, so staying alive, and keeping out of trouble was upper most in their minds rather than prettying up their buildings and streets. At that time it was a gaol sentence for anyone who wrote a negative article about the government.

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A photograph off the internet to try and give the feeling of the place in 1965.

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Aerial view of Gdansk (Danzig) in 1965 – photograph found on the internet.

Once again we cadets took part in the shore excursion, but we were really looking forward to the evening as we had plans.

In the evening, I and some of the ship’s officers who had visited Gdansk previously, took the opportunity of visiting a ‘night club’ called ‘George’s Place’. To us, the name didn’t seem to be all that exotic.

The club was in the basement of a warehouse. To get there we walked along a very quiet dimly lit street, which had a badly broken pavement, until we reached the entrance of George’s Place, which was a nondescript green door at the top of three grey concrete steps. The wall around the door was chipped red brick that seemed to have been there since the late 1800’s.
After knocking we were allowed to enter and followed the ‘doorman’ down a steep wooden stairway to the club.
The club was more restaurant than ‘night club’, with just a very small dance floor and a quartet of musicians playing American style music. We had our meal and where sitting around chatting to some local girls when one of the girls introduced us to a small group of uniformed Polish soldiers who were celebrating a birthday.

One of the soldiers stood and toasted us in vodka and black current juice. We had to return the toast, which was followed by a further toast to our Queen, Queen Elizabeth, and of course none of us knew who was in charge of Poland, so we toasted the Polish people, and the evening went on and on via toast after toast. I’ve never had this mix of vodka and black current juice since.

Among the local girls that we met that evening, one of them was named Helen and she was very attractive, and I took a shine to her. We danced and sang along with our new Polish friends and at the end of the evening Helen and I promised to write to each other.

Sometime later, when I was back in the UK, I received a letter from her asking why I never mentioned that I was in the Royal Navy Reserve, (RNR) because she had received a visit from the Polish (Russian?) security services. This bothered me, because I hadn’t even mentioned that I was in the RNR to anybody on the ship, and the only person who would possibly know about my link with the RNR would be the Captain of Dunera, because it was on my file, but I doubt that he would have mentioned this to anyone.

I wrote back that being a member of the RNR was not a secret, and the subject never arose during our chats. I never heard from her again.

The following morning we sailed for Gothenburg and arrived forty eight hours later.

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At that time Gothenburg was a very quiet town and after the tour of the city with the students, three of us did our own tour, which was a giant flop.

The following morning we sailed for the Firth of Forth the cruise was over.

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Photograph, which was taken in 1965, is from the internet.

 

 

 

Jealousy is a bridge . . .

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View from Azamara Pursuit’s bridge
sailing north to  Puerto Madryn, in Argentina 

Sailing with two master mariners can come in handy if you are only a second mate. I left it to my two seniors hands to see if a bridge visit could be arranged for a short time during a sea day. They succeeded, and we received an invitation from the Captain to visit the holy of holies on board a ship in today’s troubled world.

The ship’s Master was Captain Carl Smith from the Isle of Man, which is located in the Irish sea between Northern Ireland and the Lake district, in England.
He’d been at sea since 1989 starting with Shell Tankers as a deck cadet, and moving in to cargo ships slowly moving up the ranks to Chief Officer after passing his Master’s ticket. He moved to passenger ships in 1999 and joined Azamara in 2007 and again worked his way up until he became Master of Azamara Journey in 2017, followed by Azamara Quest in 2018.

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We thought it would be a quick in and out, but it wasn’t, Captain Smith was happy to chat about the difference in today’s sea going world compared to ours when we started in the early 1960’s.

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Between us there must be close to 150 years of sea time – Captain Smith on the left, my New Zealand friend (Captain), yours truly, and my UK friend (Captain), the three of us first met in September 1960 at HMS Conway nautical training college. When we left Conway we joined different companies and it was years later before we met again.

DSC04875r           To say that I noticed the difference from my time at sea is an understatement. My two friends had been at sea all their lives and had experienced the gradual change, but for me it was an eye opener.

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The height of technology when I was 3rd Mate in 1966 in LST Frederick Clover, was an azimuth mirror, and a very old radar set – luxury !

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I’d never seen a  ship’s bridge with a three piece suit !

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Same LST all mod cons – open bridge (what’s air conditioning) and note the H & S rope to stop my seat being washed overboard . . . well it wasn’t my seat, but the captain’s and I only got to sit in it when I knew he was not around – I used to like the ‘grave yard watch’ – mid-day to 4.00 pm and midnight to 4.00 am.
Most people used to sleep during those hours, so I had the place to myself.

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The bridge was big enough to play indoor cricket.

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The chair near the computer screen was not the Captain’s – his was the tall chair near the bridge window.

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They had enough electronic stuff to launch a satellite – we were also shown the screen that monitored the amount of chlorine in the fresh water – it had to be just right – I think the bridge monitor was a repeater from the engineering department. Every aspect of the ship was monitored from the bridge – there were alarms that sounded for anything that was not ‘right’.

If there wasn’t any movement of personnel, officer of the watch, lookout etc for a set number of minutes an alarm would go off, which was repeated I think in the captain’s cabin. A very big incentive not to fall asleep on the grave yard watch. . . . .

I think we were on the bridge for about an hour and a half and the time just flew, because the visit for me was so interesting and Captain Smith (aka as Captain Carl) was happy to chat and answer all our questions. Our wives in particular loved the experience, which gave them an idea of the life of their husbands.

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Azamara Quest – 30,277 gt launched in 2000

 

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Frederick Clover on the Sarawak River, Borneo,
approaching Kuching to disembark troops.

We had to cancel our movies under the stars, and compromised with a drive-in.

The LST was launched January 1945 & her displacement was 2,140 tons when light,

Overall I think preferred Azamata Quest :- o)

 

 

 

Gateway to India

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In 1911 King George V, and his wife Queen Mary, (our current Queen is her granddaughter), visited India for the Delhi Durbar, where they were proclaimed Emperor & Empress of India on December 12th, 1911.

Attending the event were all the Indian princes, landed gentry, and every person of note in India.

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The Nizam of Hyderabad pays homage to the Emperor and Empress at the Delhi Durbar,

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Thousands of people, as well as thousands of troops were at the Delhi Durbar ceremony. The link will take you to a silent film of King George & Queen Mary arriving at the Durbar, which is the equivalent of ‘the King’s Court’.

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To celebrate the landing of King George and Queen Mary at Wellington Pier, (see the above picture), which later became Apollo Bunder (bunder means ‘port’ in English), the Indian Government decided to commemorate the arrival of the dignitaries by building the GateWay to India. The foundation stone was laid in March 1913, but construction work did not begin until 1920, and the structure was completed in 1924.

 

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I took the above & below in 2016

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The above is looking towards the city of Bombay (now Mumbai) –
the Arabian sea is behind me.

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What used to be the place to land upon reaching India via P & O or BISNC steamers from the UK has changed to being the departure point for those who wish to visit Elephanta Island by ferry. This is the area where George V and his Queen stepped ashore.

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I just had to take this photograph of the colourful dresses of the passengers on the ferry.

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The Elephanta Island Ferry Boat

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This type of boat mooring, and the boats themselves, always makes me think of India. Check the first ferry picture showing how close they were moored to the ferry area.

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From the air you can see the same layout of the land as you can in the black & white photograph earlier in the blog. Th earlier photograph was taken in 1905.

When I took the seaward view of the Gateway to India the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel was behind me, which was opened in 1903. The hotel has a long list of famous people who have stayed in the Taj.

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560 rooms, and 44 suites, with 1500 staff, 35 of which are butlers.

In 2008 Lashkar-e-Tayyiba terrorists attacked the hotel and killed 167 people, as well as destroying the roof of the hotel. After three days Indian commandos stormed the hotel and killed the terrorists.

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To the right of the old hotel they have what they named the Taj Mahal Tower, which is the extension of the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, built in 1973.

Oddly enough the original main entrance was on the landward side of the hotel, but it has been changed and the original main entrance area is now a swimming pool.

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Picture by  Vikramjit Kakati ( User name donvikro )

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The  Somerset Light Infantry was the last British regiment to leave India, and in doing so they marched through the Gateway to India. The link will show them as they left India. The Somerset Light Infantry has served in the British army since 1685. The name Jellalabad is the name of their barracks in Somerset.

dsc05969cThe British had left as rulers of India, but the new Prime Minister, Nehru requested that various British military officers remained within the Indian army, air force and navy for some time, until the the Indian officers were able to take over completely.
India gained independence on the 15th August, 1947, which became a National Holiday.

For my Australian readers –

The date on which India became a republic is the 26th January 1950, and this date is also a National Holiday.

Singe a King’s Beard

 

We sailed from Southampton the day after we’d arrived with a fresh group of students.
This voyage was to Vigo, again, and later Cadiz, where according to Sir Francis Drake he ‘Singed the King’s Beard’ .

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Sir Francis Drake Singed a King’s Beard in 1587.

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Drake’s original map, the pink arrow shows how he approached Cadiz harbour.

 

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Spain at the time of our visit was controlled by General Franco, and had been since 1939 after the Spanish civil war, which began in 1936. When he was promoted to the rank of general in 1925, he was the youngest European general since Napoleon. General Franco died in 1975, he was eighty three.

For those who are interested you might like For Whom the Bell Tolls, which is a fictional account of Ernest Hemingway’s experience during the civil war.

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The book was published in 1940, and turned in to a film in 1943, staring Gary Cooper & Ingrid Bergman. Click on the above link for the film’s trailer

On our arrival in Cadiz we didn’t singe anything except ourselves on the beach.

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Cadiz in 1965

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Maureen & I visited Cadiz in 2015 – a lot more tourists . . .

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If Drake had joined us on this cruise he wouldn’t have recognised the fort, because he attacked the city in 1587, and the seven star fort was not built until 1598.

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From the beach position.

Next day it was Lisbon, and we arrived at 6.30 pm, which was a great time to arrive, because we were able to see the night life, without having to chaperone any of the passengers.
Eventually some of us found our way to the Texas Bar. A bar that was well known by many who went to sea, and others who liked music.

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In the 1960’s this was the place to visit in Lisbon – how the mighty have fallen.

Tables were scattered around, and a small band played in what looked like the front half of a large rowing or sailing boat. Nothing strange in seeing bands in various gimmicky settings, but the ‘boat’ was half way up the wall, in the far corner of the room.

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In 1965 this place was jumping with music, and you had to push your way in.

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I found the above on the internet – the players in the photograph are, I think, US servicemen, not locals, so they must have been off a visiting war ship. I only saw (listened to) local Portuguese bands, I didn’t know that they allowed visitor bands.

As the evening progressed the place filled and the noise level increased. The band had to play louder and louder.
The band did take requests, via the patron’s passing notes with the title of the music and  accompanied by folding money – of course.

It always happens – the band played the wrong song, and someone took ‘umbrage’ and tried to stand on a table to get at the boat, in which the band was playing. It was then that I saw barbwire wrapped around the side of the boat. Until it was pointed out to me it just looked part of the boat’s decoration to give it authenticity, as in fishing lines. The music critic couldn’t quite reach the boat, so he was saved from receiving some very nasty cuts. The barb wire is not shown in the above photograph

I asked a waiter if this was normal and he told me that they had to introduce the barbwire some weeks earlier to protect the band! So they had ‘elf an safety, even then . . .

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A tired memory of more than fifty years later, but I have read that it still opens at 11.00 pm each day, but I don’t know if that is true or not.

We sailed the following evening, the cruise was nearly over – three and a half days and we will be in Tilbury. During the homeward trip we arranged a tug of war between the students and the first-class passengers. The students won and later all the officers attended a show put on by the students.
It was a good show and part of the show was a comic sketch about two cadets – both caricatures of myself and another cadet, because we had the most to do with the students.
It went down very well with the other officers and I even recognised some of my own foibles. Do I really walk like that??

This cruise was a short cruise, and we were soon back in  Tilbury Docks (London), at 08.00 am on a Sunday to disembark our passengers. We sailed ’empty’ at 6.00 pm for the Firth of Forth in Scotland to board a Scottish school cruise for the Baltic.

Should we or shouldn’t we . . .

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Before we emigrated to Australia we lived in a small town (small for the UK) of about 11,000 people called Congleton, which is in Cheshire.
During the time we lived there we took part in the celebrations for the town’s 700 th anniversary.

I worked shifts for BOAC (later British Airways) at Manchester Airport, which was 50 kms from home.
We enjoyed our time in Congleton, and loved the location of our house, which was one of five that over looked the River Dane.

The above picture show the view from our bedroom window.

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The above view is from our living-room window.
The above photographs are getting old.

Life was good until the interest rates went up to 18%, petrol climbed to stupid prices (I didn’t have a company car, so I was paying for my own petrol) and the weather could be a pain.

The whiteness of the above two photographs is the frost – not snow.

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Come Christmas we had snow, which was fine and felt very ‘Christmas’, until you had to dig the car out and try to get to work – if the road was open.
At times only four wheeled drive vehicles were allowed out of the town.

So a decision had to be made, because the cost of living in such a beautiful area was killing us. We decided to move closer to the airport, but which airport?

Instead of moving closer to Manchester we decided to move closer to Melbourne airport in Australia, so we began the long process of gaining permission to emigrate. Which is another story.

After about a year we finally had permissions to emigrate.

It took us over a further year to sell the house, due to the high interest rates – we sold the house twice, but the first time it fell through because the buyer couldn’t secure the loan due to the interest rates.
Finally we sold, but we had to be in Australia by a certain date or else our Australian residency visa would expire.

We left power of attorney with our solicitor and flew out just in time. We paid full price for all our tickets, I was too old, at thirty five, to emigrate for £50.00.

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 Our first Christmas in Australia on Chelsea beach in Victoria.

I was out of work for eleven days, and was offered three jobs. The best job interview I’d ever had was in Melbourne. I was taken to a pub for lunch by the State Manager & the Admin manager of an international courier company, and at the end of the lunch they asked when I could start.
I started the next day and was given a company vehicle as part of my package. At the end of my first day I left the office in the dark on a wet rainy Friday, driving a strange vehicle and I didn’t know the way home.
In the end I kept Port Phillip Bay on my right and kept going until I recognised the railways station near where we lived.

From then on we’ve never looked back, Australia is a great country.

Christmas past. . . .1962

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BI vessel S.S Ellenga

As a first trip cadet – I’d been at sea for about three months – it was Christmas at sea – we left Mina el Ahamadi in Kuwait at 3.00 am on Friday 21st December – it would be Christmas at sea for the five day voyage to Little Aden in what is now Yemen.

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We were not all that sorry to leave, because I doubt that an oil refinery in Kuwait would be on many people’s ‘bucket list’, particularly at Christmas time.

Even though it was Christmas at sea the watching keeping officers and crew still had to work on Christmas Day.

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Christmas breakfast menu,  on board the Ellenga in 1962.

The one thing we didn’t worry about was being hungry – couldn’t fault the British India Steam Nav. Co for the standard of food.

Certain cruise ship today think that they invented breakfast menus  . . .

For those of us who didn’t have to work on Christmas Day,
after a beer or two we all had lunch.

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A quiet afternoon for the cadets and at 7.00 pm it was time to eat again . . .

It was Christmas dinner!

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Cover of the Christmas dinner menu – signed by the officers.

All the time were ‘eating’ we were steaming down the Persian Gulf towards the Straits of Hormuz

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Coast of Little Aden, Yemen shot from Al Burayqah

The view of our destination – Little Aden- of course we were not allowed ashore. If for some reason we had to visit Aden, it was about a 45 minute road trip, and HOT!
The above is from the internet and thanks to Taff Davies in the UK.

Aden and Little Aden were still Aden colony in 1962 – the British having captured the area  in 1839 to secure the route to India, control the entrance to the Red Sea.and to dissuade pirates.
Until 1937 Aden was governed from India, but in 1937 it became a Crown Colony.
Its location is equidistant from Bombay (now Mumbai), Zanzibar & the Suez Canal, so it was a very important strategic location.

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We now jump forward four years to 1966, when I experienced another Christmas at sea.

I’d passed my 2nd Mates ticket and had been appointed 3rd Officer in the Bankura.

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BI ship M.S Bankura 6,793 gt, launched in 1959.

We sailed from Chalna in East Pakistan (the name changed after liberation to Bangladesh in 1971), after loading in the Rupsha River from floating warehouse type barges – the photograph below will give you and idea. We used our own derricks / cranes to load the cargo, After we completed loading we sailed for Colombo in Ceylon.

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I was once again at sea for Christmas, but only have the dinner menu as a souvenir.
This time I was third mate in a cargo ship running between Calcutta to the Australian & New Zealand coast. The round trip would take us about three months, unless we were lucky and became strike bound in Australia . . . . for the dockers in Australia this was their main hobby in the 60’s.

Although I was ‘at sea’, we were not sailing the oceans at Christmas, but anchored in Colombo harbour in Ceylon, (now called Sri Lanka). We arrived on the 20th December and worked cargo until Christmas Day, which was a holiday, not just for us, but Colombo as well. While we at the buoys another of the  Company’s vessels arrived and moored at a buoy close to us. She was the Carpentaria.
I think we were left at buoys because it would have been cheaper than going alongside due to the downtime, because of Christmas.

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 Carpentaria 7268 gt Launched 1949

We had company and a change of faces, and the ability to swap books. The Carpentaria carried eleven passengers so their Christmas was going to be ‘posher’ than ours, not that we had any complaints. The menu for our Christmas dinner is below

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Front cover of the menu – once again signed by the officers.

I have a letter that I sent to Maureen detailing the high jinks that took place between the Bankura & the Carpentaria officers – but that is another story.

 

 

21st Birthday

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Acropolis by Leo von Klenze 1846

It was a short voyage from Istanbul to Piraeus, which is the port for Athens.  Once again I took advantage of the student tours and walked around the Parthenon overlooking Athens.

DSC04058rI took this photograph of Athens in 2015, the Parthenon was behind me.

Visiting the Parthenon was nowhere near as crowded in 1965 as it was in 2015, when Maureen & 1 and two friends visited.

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How long will it be before the ruins have been worn away?

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Naples, the port for Pompeii – 2018

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A very interesting day with the students, and once again far less crowded than I experienced in 2015 ! The above photograph was taken in 2015.

From Naples our next port was Cagliari in Sardinia.  It was Palm Sunday, and the place was very, very quiet.

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Piazza Repubblica in 1965.

I decide to go for a swim on Poetto beach, which was a beautiful beach of fine white sand, backed by white sand hills.

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Part of the beach area – found this on the internet, which was taken in 1965.

I wonder if anyone else remembers this beach in 1965? Due to the removal of the cassoti (beach huts) in the 1980’s from the beach, and the failure to stop sand erosion, the beach had to be rebuilt using sand from dredgers.

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Cassoti or beach huts – picture from approx. mid 60’s.

The problem was that the new sand was not the fine white sand of old, but different coloured sand. I believe they are having the same erosion problems today and the ‘new’ sand is being washed away.

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The beach today showing the encroaching cafes etc – downloaded from the internet.

After my swim I felt peckish and decided to buy a ham roll as I walked back to the wharf to re-join the ship.
I purchased my ‘lunch’ from a shop with a window full of different meats and bread sticks & rolls. My Italian was nil and the shop assistant’s English was as fluent as my Italian. I mimed and asked for a ham roll pointing at what I thought looked like ham. He handed me a dry bread roll with thin meat in it, all wrapped in paper. One bite and I realised it was not ham, but prosciutto. At that time, I had not yet come to appreciate this type of dry-cured meat.
While walking along the street from the beach I had been ‘adopted’ by a dog that wouldn’t leave me alone, so I thought why not give him the meat? It’d save it going to waste, because I didn’t like the taste of the meat, or the dry roll.
The dog sniffed the meat and bread & refused to eat any of my lunch. He looked at me, turned and trotted back towards the beach. Obviously, the dog had better taste than I did.

I arrived back on board to find a pile of mail waiting for me – I’d forgotten it was my birthday, and I had a number of cards from the UK wishing me Happy birthday for my 21st.

We sailed at 11.30 pm and three days later we sighted Gibraltar. This time I was going to make sure that I would have a look around.
I did manage to get ashore and check out the ‘Rock’, but would have liked longer; we sailed at midnight.

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Gibraltar, captured from the Spanish in 1704, by Anglo – Dutch forces.

 Two days later we arrived in Vigo, after a rolling trip from the Atlantic swells as we sailed along the coast of Portugal. The ship’s movement kept most of the younger students very quiet.
We were only in Vigo, which is on the northwest coast of Spain, for a short stay.
Our next port of call was our last for this trip.

Southampton and the chat, yet to happen, with a certain father in Christchurch about his daughter’s visit in Istanbul.

We were alongside in Southampton by 8.00 am and wished everyone who was leaving a safe journey home – many of the students were in tears as they left the ship.

On the internet there are web pages created by ex-students, who have now reached retirement age, and their experience of the Dunera or one of the other school ships,  made such an impression that it stayed with them all their lives.

A later cruise in MV Uganda the link is a short five minute ‘we remember when’ of people who experienced a school ship cruise aboard M/V Uganda.

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Above is M/V Uganda during her school ship period.

Dunera as a school ship is just over a minute, but it will give you an idea.

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Each dormitory had a badge and a name, this one was Sir Edward Pellew 1757 – 1833, a very famous sea officer during the Napoleonic wars.

170px-Sir_Edward_Pellew  Sir Edward Pellew in uniform

The following day we were welcoming a new group of students, as we prepared to sail at 3.00 pm for Spain, starting with life jacket drill. . . . .